Mass Media Today

Hey lezer,

Wil je weten wat ik allemaal doe in het vak mass media today? Dan kan je hier mijn samenvattingen terugvinden van de lessen en het boek. Niet alles is zelfgeschreven, sommige dingen zijn gekopieerd.  

Het boek wat we gebruiken is: Hines & Lauterborn, (2008), Print Matters,Racom Communications.


Chapter 1: The Importance of Print

Why do you use print?

It’s the purest form of advertising. It is just you and the reader. Advertising is an idea given power visually and crafted to move people with words.

Chapter 1: The Importance of Print: The Primacy of Print

When people see a television commercial, what will they remember?

  • Virtually scene-by-scene
  • Can repeat the dialogue
  • Can hum the music

When people see a television commercial, what will they probably not remember?

  • The right company (most of the time it is the leader)
  • The wrong category

Why use brands television commercials?

For bonds the brand to the work and it is breaks through.

Most of the time, television commercials are …

A negative return on investment for brands that aren’t leaders in their category.

Happen this also to the print advertising?

No, when people like the ad, they will remember the brand. They remember it because they experience print differently than television commercials.

What are the differences in experience?

Television commercial Print media

–       Reading

–       Talking

–       Cell phones

–       Internet

è Television doesn’t require our whole attention, so we don’t give it.

If you lose your concentration, you will read the sentence of the paragraph again.


The skip-button for advertising You get a more complete story with print. You will think what is happen before, how they live and fascinating about it. When you read a story, it goes into another part of our brain.

Why do you have to concentrate on reading?

When you concentrate on reading, you will remember it and you don’t have to reread it.

Chapter 1: The Importance of Print: Parting shot

What do you need to check before you send something to your teacher, client or company?

If you have made some spelling and grammar mistakes.  

PowerPoint-presentation in class: Chapter 1: The New World of Advertising and Integrated Brand Promotion (IBP)

What is IBP?

Integrated Brand Promotion (IBP) is a holistic method of coordinating your messaging and your value proposition across all elements of the marketing mix.  A successful IBP effort ensures your PR actually leads to publicity, your advertising messages match your front-line sales promotion messages, and your social media output enhances customer relationships.  We have scaled our IBP-based strategies to benefit businesses of any size.

What do we need?

We need perspective on advertising and IBP.

What is reshaping the communications environment?

Technology and consumer control

What is happening in the world

The lines between entertainment and advertising/IBP are blurring “Madison & Vine”

What is the more current “wisdom”?

The current “wisdom” is that advertising and IBP will become more digital, interactive and social.

How would that be facilitated?

Facilitated through “mobile marketing”efforts

Give an example of mobile marketing?

Reaching consumers with messages on their mobile devices.

PowerPoint-presentation in class: Chapter 1: Old media/new media

Where are media all about?

It’s all about the brand.

Does new media change the brand?

No, New media does not change the purpose of advertising and IBP. It is communicating effectively about the brand.

Who use advertising/IBP?

Firms use advertising/IBP to build brands.

Need and use only big companies IBP?

No, firms of all sizes need and use IBP.

Is advertising the only tools in IBP?

No, advertising is just one of many tools in IBP.

Does advertising/IBP guarantee success?

No, it does not guarantee success. 8 of 10 new products fail.

PowerPoint-presentation in class: Chapter 1: What are Advertising and Integrated Brand Promotions?

Which three criteria must be met for a communication to be classified as advertising?

  • The communication must be paid for
  • The communication must be delivered through mass media
  • he communication must be attempting to persuade
People have all sorts of positive and negative (mis)perceptions about advertising and promotion. What are yours?

What is IBP?

Integrated Brand Promotion (IBP) is the process of using a wide range of promotional tools working together to create widespread brand exposure.

Is IBP a progress?


IBP uses a wide range of tools, which?

Advertising Event sponsorship
Point-of-Purchase (in-store) materials Brand entertainment (product placement on TV shows, in movies)
Direct Marketing (catalogs, informercials, email) Outdoor signage/billboards
Personal Selling Public Relations
Internet advertising Influencer (peer-to-peer) communications
Blogs Corporate advertising

PowerPoint-presentation in class: Chapter 1: Advertising as a Communication Process—A Model

What is the A-model?

  • Production:

The advertiser and social context determine ad content.

  • Reception:

The context of ad reception and the audience’s understanding of an ad result in a meaningful interpretation of the ad.

  • Accommodation and negotiation:

The ways in which consumers interpret ads, individual by individual.

PowerPoint-presentation in class: Chapter 1: Audiences for Advertising: Audience Categories

Who are the audiences for advertising?

  • Household Consumers
  • Business Organizations
  • The Trade Channel
  • Professionals
  • Government

PowerPoint-presentation in class: Chapter 1: Audiences for Advertising: Geography

Which types in geography are there in advertising?

  • Global advertising: One ad fits all; When and why?
  • International advertising
  • National advertising
  • Regional advertising
  • Local advertising

PowerPoint-presentation in class: Chapter 1:Advertising as a Business

How do we do advertising in the business process?

  1. The role of advertising in the marketing mix
  2. Advertising in brand management
  • Information and persuasion
  • Introduce new brands and brand extensions
  • Building and maintaining brand loyalty/brand equity
  • Creating an image/meaning
  • Building brand loyalty in the trade channel
  • Facilitate brand management

3. Advertising in market segmentation, differentiation, and positioning

  • Segmentation: Peterogeneous to homogeneous
  • Differentiation: Perceived as different or unique
  • Positioning: Distinct (= kenbaar)from other brands; Occupies a “valued” place in consumer’s mind; External niche vs. internal positioning

4. Advertising in revenue and profit generation

  • Brand loyalty leads to inelasticity of demand: demand is less sensitive to price changes
  • Economies of scale: higher volume results in lower unit cost = higher profit
  • Both revenue and profit are enhanced (= verbeterd)

PowerPoint-presentation in class: Chapter 1: Types of advertising

What is primary demand stimulation?

You make advertising about the entire product category.

What is selective demand stimulation?

You make advertising for specific brands within a product category.

What is direct response advertising?

You make advertising that encourages immediate action by consumer.

What is delayed response advertising?

You make advertising for brand image development.

What is corporate advertising?

You promote the firm, not the brands.

PowerPoint-presentation in class: Chapter 1: The Economic Effects of Advertising

What are the economic effects of advertising?


PowerPoint-presentation in class: Chapter 1: From Advertising to IMC to IBP

What is IMC?

This means integrated marketing communications (IMC). It is an approach to achieving the objectives of a marketing campaign, through a well-coordinated use of different promotional methods that are intended to reinforce each other. Integrated marketing communication recognizes the value of a comprehensive plan that evaluates the strategic roles of a variety of communication disciplines advertising, public relations, personal selling, and sales promotion and combines them to provide clarity, consistency, and maximum communication impact.

How do you go from advertising to IMC to IBP?



PowerPoint presentation: Constant Transition: Trends Affecting the Advertising and Promotion Industry

Constant Transition: What are the trends affecting the advertising and promotion Industry?

  • Consumer control: Social media, Blogs, DVRs
  • Media Proliferation (= snelle vermenigvuldiging van media), Consolidation (= duurzaam maken, media sterk maken), and “Multiplatform” Media Organizations
  • Media clutter and fragmentation
    • Greater emphasis on IBP tools
  • Crowdsourcing
  • Mobile marketing/Mobile media

 What is media clutter?

Advertising or marketing clutter refers to the large volume of advertising messages that the average consumer is exposed to on a daily basis. This phenomenon results from a marketplace that is overcrowded with products leading to huge competition for customers.

PowerPoint presentation: Scope of the Advertising Industry

Give some scope of the advertising industry?

  • S. Advertising Spending

More than $300 Billion

  • Worldwide Advertising Spending

More than $600 Billion

PowerPoint presentation: The Role of the Advertiser in IBP: Before the agencies get involved

What do you need to do before the agencies get involved? (so the role of the advertising)

  • Describe the value that the firm’s brand provides
  • Describe the brand’s position in the market
  • Describe the firm’s objectives for the brand in the near-term and long-term
  • Identify the target market(s) that are most likely to respond favorable to the brand
  • Identify and manage the supply chain/distribution system that will most effectively reach the targets
  • Be committed to using advertising and other promotional tools to grow the brand
  • Think about this when you have to create a creative letter!

PowerPoint presentation: Structure of the Advertising and Promotion Industry

Give the structure of the Advertising and Promotion Industry:

You have the clients, that will come to us (agents, story tellers, advertising). We will make the advertising and select which media they have to use. Afterwards the advertising would be seen by the consumers. The media isn’t always mass media.

Who are the external facilitators?

  • Marketing and Advertising Research Firms
  • Consultants
    • Database
    • Web
    • CRM
    • Traditional Management
  • Production Facilitators
    • Facilities
    • Technicians
    • In-store displays
  • Software Firms
    • Web tracking
    • Fulfillment

Which media organizations are there?

  • Broadcast
    • TV
    • Radio
    • Satellite (= GPS)
  • Print
    • Magazines
    • Direct mail
    • Newspapers
    • Specialty
  • Digital/Interactive Media
    • Internet
    • Interactive broadcast
    • iPad
    • Smartphone
  • Support Media
    • Outdoor, directories
    • Event sponsorship
    • Premiums
    • Point-of-purchase
    • Branded entertainment
  • Media Conglomerates
    • Time Warner
    • Disney
    • Liberty Media

Who can be the target audience?

  • Household Consumers
  • Businesses
  • Professionals
  • Government Organizations

PowerPoint presentation: Advertisers

Who can be the advertisers? Give some example. 

  • Manufacturers and Service Firms

They have different brands under the umbrella
E.g.: Procter & Gamble, Verizon

  • Trade Resellers

(Een wederverkoper of reseller is een verkoper van elders ingekochte diensten en producten, bijvoorbeeld op het vlak van software of webhosting.

Wederverkopers vormen een schakel tussen producenten of serviceaanbieders en eindgebruikers. De producten van wederverkopers kunnen onder een eigen merknaam worden verkocht, of onder de naam die de fabrikant voert.)
E.g.: Sears, McDonald’s

  • Government
    g.: Federal, State, Local
  • Social/Not-for-profit Organizations
    g.: United Way, Nature Conservancy

PowerPoint presentation: Agencies

Which options do you have in agencies?

  • Advertising agencies
  • Promotion agencies

Which options do you have in advertising agencies?

Full-service Everybody has their own function. They can do everything.
Creative boutique These are smaller boutiques that are specialized in some kind of media for example.
Digital/interactive They are specialized in digital/interactive
In house The big national brands have an in-house design.

E.g.: Proctor & Gamble: work for different brands but under the same company.

Media specialists There are specialists in specific media

 Which services are there in the Full-Service Agency?

  • Account Services
  • Marketing Research Services
    • Account planner
  • Creative and Production Services
  • Media Planning and Buying Services
  • Administrative Services

What are the things that promotion agencies do?

  • Direct Marketing/Database
  • Sales Promotion

E.g.: perhaps brand launch

  • Event Planning
  • Design Firms
  • Public Relations
    Firms: it is non-paid advertising

PowerPoint presentation: Some of the Agency Professionals who Help Advertisers Prepare Advertising/IBP

Who are the agency professionals who help advertisers prepare advertising/IBP?

  • Account planners

Make the goals

  • Marketing specialists
  • Media buyers

Can we afford it?

  • Art directors:
  • Graphic designers
  • PR Specialists
  • Creative directors

Who are making the visuals, the creative people

  • Copywriters
  • Direct marketing specialists
  • Sales Promotion
  • Event Planners
  • Web developers
  • Social media experts

PowerPoint presentation: Agency Compensation

Which kind of compensation can you get with the agency?

  • Commissions
  • Markup charges
  • Fee systems
  • Pay-for-results

What are the commissions?

  • Around 15% of airtime fees—in flux
  • 16 2/3 percent for outdoor media
  • Web media is all negotiated

Give an example of a commission:

1000-dollar media schema

15% would come to me -> 150 agency fee

850 -> for spending everything for the media

What are the markup charges?

Production cost + fixed %

What are the fee systems?

Hourly rates, or by project

What are the pay-for-results?

  • Tightly-specified objectives
  • But, who is responsible for “results”?
  • Most of the clients want result, and now because most of the ads are measurable, they and the agency are going to track the ad. The clients will say that they are going to pay you in degree that the ad works.

Chapter 2: Are you talking to me?

What is an Account Planning?

It is also called Brand Planning. It is about developing insight into the person whose behavior you’re about to try to change before you sit down to create an ad. Who is this person and how do you make that product or service relevant to her? You know thy (= jouw)consumers- all wisdom centers there.

What do you need to know about that person?

Not only the demographic sides, but everything that is going on her life. Where is she going to shop, which hobbies has she, how many kids, what is her shop. You need to create the buyer persona.

What are the three level of experiences for a consumer?

  1. Functional

What the product/service does, how it works, what it’s made of, …

  1. Emotional
  2. Self-expressive

What do you need to do when you are creating an ad?

The functional attribute or benefit is the primary focus of most advertising.

Chapter 2: Are you talking to me?: Differences and Distinctions

Customers are greedy. They want to know what’s in it for them – that is, what they will receive, enjoy, or experience in exchange for their investment in your company, product, or service.

What is the difference between an attribute and a benefit and a determinant?

  • An attribute

It is the same as features. It is our stuff. So, what it can do.

product features “our stuff”

E.g.: Cars,

  • A benefit

This are the consumers stuff.

“Customers stuff” how product helps them or makes them feel

  • A determinant

How product differs from competition

Give an example that you really see the difference between an attribute and a benefit.

Imagine an ad showing a guy up at that ladder dropping the drill, but not looking at it particularly worried. “Why is the man smiling” the headline might say. “Because that new GE drill he dropped isn’t going to break when it hit the ground,” the subhead might explain.

What is permission to believe?

That the ad gives proof that something is true with more explaining. For example, in the example above, it would go on with that the drill body is virtually shatter-proof because it is made of Lexan, GE’s nearly indestructible engineered plastics.

Give some tips:

  1. Make it easy for the reader.
  2. Don’t make them guess.
  3. Tell him the benefit first: what’s in it for him?; then prove it, by citing (= citeren)the attribute (or feature) that makes the benefit possible.
  • One step closer to bond your potential buyer, because a lot of competitors haven’t this figured out yet.

Chapter 2: Are you talking to me?: Even a Unique Attribute Isn’t enough

What is the Unique Selling Proposition?

It is something unique about your product. What the client wants to say. But that isn’t the right way to interpret that.

What should it mean?

That you need to find a benefit that matters for your potential buyer.

What is the Unique Buying Proposition?

What the consumer needs to hear that the client can say. What is in it for me?

 Chapter 2: Are you talking to me?: But There’s More

What is the difference between an attribute, a benefit and a determinant?

  • An attribute

This is something that can be said about a product. It may be the USP.

  • A benefit

It is an expression of the “so what” of an attribute. What that characteristic or quality or component or capability does for the consumer. This may bethe UBP.

  • A determinant

This is how the consumer decide to buy for your product or the of the competitors. It can be your benefit or attribute, but that isn’t always the case. So how they evaluate the products (maybe price, place, …).

What is a benefit may be a UBP?

Many features and benefits that are unique (or are claimed first, therefore, may be perceived by the consumer to be unique) are nonetheless irrelevant.

What is the difference between USP and UBP?

  • Unique Selling Proposition

What client wants the consumer to know

  • Unique buying Proposition

What consumer needs to hear

E.g.: Amazon: clients want to hear that they can it deliver at Hawaii and to the door.

Chapter 2: Are you talking to me?: Engineers Aren’t Always to Blame

Read page 11 in Print Matters

What was the USP in this text?

The paperboard cartons that fit into refrigerator doors because that was a unique advantage compared to gallon-sized plastic jugs.

But what is the fact? Why?

It had always been true, and consumer had still switched overwhelming to buying milk in plastic jug.

It was an attribute- with an obvious space-saving benefit – but it clearly wasn’t a determinant. It didn’t change a mother’s behavior and it didn’t matter even when it was unique.

How do you know what does matter?

By doing research (sometimes, it can cost a lot).

Chapter 2: Are you talking to me?: You can observe a lot by just watching

Give the definition of research:

It is finding out what matters to people, relative to the kind of product or service you’re selling.

What is the first and most indispensable (= onmisbaar)form of research?


What is the only purpose of your advertising research?

To affect someone’s behavior. Do not forget that when you are doing research.

Which objectives you can do research about?

  • You want a consumer to try something she’s never tried before
  • You want her to switch from a brand she’s been buying for years to a new brand
  • You want her to keep buying your client’s brand despite all the advertising she sees that’s trying to tempt her way.
Whatever the desired behavior is, make sure you know exactly what it is you’re supposed to be trying to make happen.

What must all advertising have?

Specific, measurable objectives

What is corporate advertising?

It is advertising that talks about a company.

Who’s Margaret Mead?

She is the cultural anthropologist who lived among South Pacific island people and thus was able to give the rest of the world insight into how these people lived and worked, how their societies were organized, and what was important in their culture. Now, researches use similar ways to research their (potential) consumers.

Explain ethnography observation with an example:

Levi’s sent cultural anthropologists to study teenage boys’ bedrooms, on the theory that their bedrooms were the only part of the house that was completely theirs, the place where they could express themselves and display their stuff. Levi’s was particularly interested in the clothing played in their boys’ life, also which music they listen, their language, how they spend their time, sports, entertainment, etc. After the research, they adapted their advertising, so they hoped to get a more connection with the age group.

What are the characteristics of ethnography observation?

  • More complex than just hanging around a supermarket
  • More expensive
  • But still about watching people’s behavior

What is the job of an account planner?

To find out what people think by asking it to them.

What is the difference between an account planner and an old-style researcher?

  • An account planner

To find out what people think by asking it to them. They produce insight into how consumers think, not just date about what they do.

  • An old-style researcher

They just collected data. They can tell you who, what, when, how much, and how often.

Example of an old-style researcher:

Mothers aged 25-44 with children at home between the ages of 6 and 18 buy 18% of all milk sold…

It this information useful?

Yes, but it is not sufficient (= voldoende).

What is missing here? Who’s gonna do that part?

  • Why?
  • Account Planners find that for you.

Chapter 2: Are you talking to me?: Two types of Research

Which two kinds of research do you have?

  • Quantitative research
  • Qualitative research

What is quantitative research?

It involves lots of numbers.

Geeft antwoord op de vraag Hoeveel? Het onderzoekt de omvang van het fenomeen. Het probeert het fenomeen te meten.

Onderzoekmethodes: representatieve steekproeven over de totale populatie

Give an example of a quantitative research:

  • A survey
  • Sample

What do you need to assume:

  • The sample (the people among whom the research is conducted) …
  • is representative of the people whose behavior you want to change
  • and large enough to be projectable (you surveyed enough people in the target group, so it can be representative).

What is qualitative research?

It is less concerned with numbers but, instead with quality responses. This means open-ended questions, allowing participants to voice their opinions.

Geeft antwoord op de vragen Waarom? Hoe? Het beschrijft de aard van het fenomeen. Het probeert het fenomeen te begrijpen en te verklaren.

Onderzoekmethodes: diepte-interviews en groepsdiscussies

Give examples of qualitative research:

  • Observation
  • Focus groups
  • Copy testing
  • Concept testing

What is observation?

Watching actual consumer behavior.

What is focus groups?

You contact 8 to 12 people in one target group and bring them together to ask them questions and get them talking about what they do and why, relative to the product/service. Now you can go deeper and deeper, because you can interact and let them explain the raison why they do that or want that.

What is concept testing?

It is evaluating alternative creative ideas.

It is by the focus group that you going to test the product.

E.g.: Pizzahut, introducing an app, that you can order online. Society: appetizers, the thing app with Pizzahut wasn’t understanding. They need to out a cellphone in it so it was understandable.

What is copy testing?

Assures message is prepared for an audience’s readability and comprehension level.

What will good planners do?

Use both forms of research

Chapter 2: Are you talking to me?: What Do You Do with All That Stuff?

With all that kind of information, what will the account planner do?

They will collect all that information and making a Creative Brief for the copywriters, art directors who will create the advertising itself.

How can the Creative Brief help them?

The responses help guide the ad planning from start to its finished execution.

Chapter 2: Are you talking to me?: Taking it to the Next Level

What are the three levels of Aaker’s?

  • Functional
  • Emotional
  • Self-expressive

Give some examples of functional:

  • Auto-indsutry
  • Microsoft
  • Scrumping rubbos

Give some examples of emotional:

  • Dove
  • Apple

Give some examples of self-expressive:

  • Zwitsal
  • Jiff

Explain the emotional level:

This means how using the product make her feel.

Expressieve waarden karakter van de gebruiker


Hoger niveau als instrumentele waarden


Wie ben ik? Expressie geven met gebruik van merk. Een gevoel aan het merk geven.


Bv.: Zwitsal àverantwoordelijkheid, tederheid,…

Explain the self-expressive level:

This is about what your product can help her become.

Centrale waarden Diepmenselijke idealen


Piramide van Maslov hanteren


Bv.: Zwitsal àMoederliefde, allerbeste voor de kinderen

Chapter 2: Are you talking to me?: Varieties of Advertising Research 

What is concept testing?

A method to evaluate alternative creative ideas.

What are focus groups?

Ideal for getting feedback to open-ended questions, this qualitative technique can assess (= schatten) consumer opinions on many topics.

What is copy testing?

This helps assure (= verzekeren)the message is prepared for an audience’s readability(= leesbaarheid)and comprehension level.